Prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with stable chronic renal disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions: randomized comparison of two preventive strategies


OBJECTIVE: We compared use of intravenous (IV) normal saline (NS) to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) with or without oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI).

BACKGROUND: CI-AKI is associated with significant adverse clinical events. Use of NAC has produced variable results. Recently, intravenous hydration with NaHCO(3) for CI-AKI prophylaxis has been adopted as standard treatment for patients with stable chronic renal disease undergoing catheterization procedures.

METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 320 patients with baseline renal insufficiency scheduled to undergo catheterization. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either IV NS ± NAC (n = 161) or IV dextrose 5% in water containing 154 mEq/l of NaHCO(3) ± NAC (n = 159). IV NS was administered at 1 ml/kg body weight for 12 hr preprocedure and 12 more hr postprocedure. IV NaHCO(3) was administered at 3 ml/kg body weight for 1 hr preprocedure followed by 1 ml/kg body weight postprocedure. A 1,200 mg oral dose of NAC was given 2-12 hr preprocedure and 6-12 hr postprocedure in 50% of patients in each study arm. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of >0.5 mg/dl or >25% above baseline creatinine.

RESULTS: Overall incidence of CI-AKI was 10.3%. There was no significant difference in incidence among the two groups (NS ± NAC 11.8% vs. NaHCO(3) ± NAC 8.8%, p = ns). Incidence of CI-AKI increased with increasing age (p = 0.001), contrast agent use >3 ml/kg body weight (p = 0.038) and diuretic use (p = 0.005).

CONCLUSION: Incidence of CI-AKI was no different in the NaHCO(3) group compared to NS group, and NAC did not reduce CI-AKI in the two study arms.

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