Trends, predictors and outcomes of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in patients with a left ventricular assist device
Shahreyar M, Bob-manuel T, Khouzam RN, et al. Trends, predictors and outcomes of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in patients with a left ventricular assist device. Ann Transl Med. 2018;6(1):5.
Background: Patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are at a higher risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There is limited data available on risk factors and outcomes associated with IS and ICH in LVAD patients.
Methods: All patients >18 years of age with an LVAD were identified based on the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from the year 2007 to 2011. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of IS were compared to those without IS. In a separate analysis, patients with a discharge diagnosis of ICH were compared to patients without ICH. Trends, predictors and outcomes of IS and ICH were analyzed using a multivariate regression model.
Results: Out of 17,323 discharges with a primary diagnosis of heart failure with LVAD, 624 (3.6%) patients had a co-diagnosis of IS and 387 (2.2%) had a co-diagnosis of ICH. From 2007 to 2011, the discharge diagnosis of heart failure with LVAD increased from 946 to 5,540, but the proportion of patients with IS remained about 3.4%, while the incidence of ICH decreased from 3.8% in 2007 to a plateau of around 2.2% in the following years. After adjusting for potential confounders, increasing Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score was an independent predictor of IS and ICH. In-hospital mortality was four-fold higher in the IS group (odds ratio: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3-7.6; P
Conclusions: Increasing comorbidity burden significantly increases the risk of both IS and ICH with LVAD. In our cohort, the incidence of IS and ICH increases the mortality 4- and 18-fold, respectively. Renal disease, liver disease and abnormal coagulation profile were independent predictors of mortality in LVAD patients with IS.