Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with challenging anatomy due to venous anomalies or adult congenital heart disease
Niazi I, Dhala A, Choudhuri I, Sra J, Akhtar M, Tajik AJ. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with challenging anatomy due to venous anomalies or adult congenital heart disease. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Sep;37(9):1181-8.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has proven salutary effects in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, and electromechanical dyssynchrony in the setting of ischemic, nonischemic, and congenital cardiomyopathy. While CRT device implants have become routine in the adult ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy populations, patients with congenital heart disease offer special challenges due to unusual anatomic variations.
METHODS: A comprehensive assessment of anatomic abnormalities is essential prior to implant. In addition, implant techniques and equipment must be tailored to the expected anatomy. A flexible approach is necessary-implant may require equipment and techniques adapted from vascular intervention.
CONCLUSION: This article describes our approach to CRT implant in patients with congenital heart disease, and is illustrated by reports of several cases.