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cardiotoxicity, chemotherapy side effects, imaging method, cardiac biomarkers


Cardiotoxicity is a rising issue connected to use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Early diagnosis during follow-up is of paramount importance, and careful surveillance is recommended. Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography and nuclear medicine techniques is widely used in clinical practice; however, their sensitivity in detecting early cardiac damage is low. New instruments like speckle-tracking imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac circulating biomarkers are available to clinicians to best evaluate the onset and progression of cardiotoxic effects, improving the therapeutic management and final outcome for the patient.