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endovascular aortic repair, endoleak, transgraft embolization, Onyx liquid embolic agent


Elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the first-line therapeutic option for patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, endoleaks –– persistent blood flow outside the lumen of the stent graft (or endograft) but within the aneurysm sac or adjacent vascular segment being treated by the graft –– continue to be a persistent problem in the post-EVAR setting. The type II endoleak is the most common of these and can be a demanding challenge to address by standard endovascular techniques. Currently, two prominent endovascular techniques exist for the management of type II endoleaks: direct translumbar embolization and transarterial embolization. Both of these are fraught with their own limitations and complications. In this review, we describe the contemporary trends in management of type II endoleaks and introduce a novel endovascular technique to treat this challenging and common EVAR complication.