Percutaneous in utero thoracoamniotic shunt creation for fetal thoracic abnormalities leading to nonimmune hydrops
White S, Tutton S, Ames M, et al. Percutaneous in utero thoracoamniotic shunt creation for fetal thoracic abnormalities leading to nonimmune hydrops. Journal Of Vascular And Interventional Radiology: JVIR. June 2014;25(6):889-894.
PURPOSE: To describe a transabdominal, transuterine Seldinger-based percutaneous approach to create a shunt for treatment of fetal thoracic abnormalities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five fetuses presented with nonimmune fetal hydrops secondary to fetal thoracic abnormalities causing severe mass effect. Under direct ultrasound guidance, an 18-gauge needle was used to access the malformation. Through a peel-away sheath, a customized pediatric transplant 4.5-F double J ureteral stent was advanced; the leading loop was placed in the fetal thorax, and the trailing end was left outside the fetal thorax within the amniotic cavity.
RESULTS: Seven thoracoamniotic shunts were successfully placed in five fetuses; one shunt was immediately replaced because of displacement during the procedure, and another shunt was not functioning at follow-up requiring insertion of a second shunt. All fetuses had successful decompression of the thoracic malformation, allowing lung reexpansion and resolution of hydrops. Three of five mothers had meaningful (> 7 d) prolongation of their pregnancies. All pregnancies were maintained to > 30 weeks (range, 30 weeks 1 d-37 weeks 2 d). There were no maternal complications.
CONCLUSIONS: A Seldinger-based percutaneous approach to draining fetal thoracic abnormalities is feasible and can allow for prolongation of pregnancy and antenatal lung development and ultimately result in fetal survival.